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THE ANCIENT PERSIA (IRAN)

Talk about travel, tourism and your holidays.

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Postby Oriani » Sat Dec 30, 2006 4:33 pm

Those columns look like the Greek ones!!! Nice!! Exotic!
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Postby PAARSE » Mon Jan 01, 2007 4:52 am

The Gate of All Nations


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To the north of the Apadana stands the impressive Gate of Xerxes, from which a broad stairway descends. Xerxes, who built this structure, named it "The Gate of All Countries, " for all visitors had to pass through this, the only entrance to the terrace, on their way to the Throne Hall to pay homage to the king. The building consisted of one spacious room whose roof was supported by four stone columns with bell-shaped bases. Parallel to the inner walls of this room ran a stone bench, interrupted at the doorways. The exterior walls of the structure, made of thick mud brick, were decorated with numerous niches. Each of the three walls, on the east, west, and south, had a very large stone doorway. A pair of colossal bulls guarded the western entrance; two assyrianized man-bulls stood at the eastern doorway. Engraved above each of the four colossi is a trilingual inscription attesting to Xerxes having built and completed the gate. The doorway on the south, opening toward the Apadana, is the widest of the three. Pivoting devices found on the inner corners of all the doors indicate that they must have had two-leaved doors, which were probably made of wood and covered with sheets of ornamented metal.

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Postby PAARSE » Mon Jan 01, 2007 4:59 am

The Throne Hall

Next to the Apadana, the second largest building of the Persepolis Terrace is the Throne Hall (also called the "Hundred-Column Hall"), which was started by Xerxes and completed by his son Artaxerxes I (end of the fifth century B.C.). Its eight stone doorways are decorated on the south and north with reliefs of throne scenes and on the east and west with scenes depicting the king in combat with monsters. In addition, the northern portico of the building is flanked by two colossal stone bulls. In the beginning of Xerxes' reign the Throne Hall was used mainly for receptions for representatives of all the subject nations of the empire. Later, when the Treasury proved to be too small, the Throne Hall also served as a storehouse and, above all, as a place to display more adequately objects, both tribute and booty, from the royal treasury. Concerning this, Schmidt wrote of the striking parallel in a modern example of a combined throne hall and palace museum where the Shah of Iran stores and exhibits the royal treasures in rooms and galleries adjoining his throne hall in the Gulistan Palace at Teheran.

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Postby PAARSE » Mon Jan 01, 2007 8:32 am

PASARGAD


I am Cyrus.
King of the world. When I entered Babylon... I did not allow anyone to terrorise the land... I kept in view the needs of Babylon and all its sanctuaries to promote their well-being... I put an end to their misfortune.


From The First Charter of the Rights of Nations

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The city of Pasargadae is located 70 kilometers north of Takht-e Jamshid on the plain of Morghab. Here there are some remains of the first capital of Achaemenids, which can truly be called the cradle of Irans documented history. The name of the city has been derived from that of a Persian tribe, meaning The Camp of the Persians. Unlike Takht-e Jamshid Pasargadae is not located on a terrace. It is composed of several separate and sporadic palaces in a vast park. Although the capital was later transferred to Takht-e Jamshid the ceremonies of coronation were held at Pasargadae so it never failed to be an important center. From the cultural viewpoint, too, Pasargadae is very significant. Cyrus the Great made the greatest and most powerful kingdom all over the world of the Persian nomads in the shortest conceivable period of time. He was also the founder of a new and splendid style in the art of architecture, which evolved in Takht-e Jamshid and became known as Achaemenid style. All the palaces of Pasargadae have been situated in the beautiful lush gardens. The most important remains found at Pasargadae are :

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Tomb of Cyrus
The name of Pasargadae is always associated with that of the tomb of Cyrus. This construction is located at the beginning of the Pasargadae complex. It is constructed of huge, white limestone blocks, without any window, resting on a rectangular, stepped plinth, with six receding stages. It has only one entrance door. In spite of its simplicity the tomb suggests the power and authority of the founder of Achaemenid dynasty.

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The Gatehouse
There is a construction, located one-kilometer northeast of the tomb of Cyrus, which is supposed to be the entrance of Pasargadae. The hall of this palace has eight soft and polished stone columns. The entire floor of this building is covered with two layers of white stone.

The Bridge
The remains of a bridge across a stream have been found 150 meters west of the gatehouse. Two stone walls had been built on both sides and there were nine stone columns on the bed of the stream. Apparently the bridge was a connective route between the gatehouse and the audience hall.

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The Audience hall
There is a palace with huge columns, 100 meters to the left of the bridge. The palace was used to receive the agents and nobles of different countries who came to see Cyurs the Great. The central hall of the palace had eight columns of which only one has wonderfully remained on its place since 2500 years ago. Four doorways to the central hall were ornamented with relief.

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Cyrus Private Palace
This palace is located 300 meters away from the audience hall. The design of the palace is like the letter H and its central hall is ornamented with 30 columns. The eastern iwan of the hall also has 40 columns. There is an inscription in cuneiform on a wall of the iwan written in three languages the translation of which is : I am Cyrus, the Achaemenid king . The western iwan also had 24 columns. The walls of the palace and iwans were ornamented with a lot of relief, which are not left. It is supposed that this palace was the private palace of Cyrus the Great. The other remains found at Pasargadae are the Solomons prison, Arg and chapel.
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Postby PAARSE » Tue Jan 02, 2007 9:10 am

Naqsh-e Rustam

Naqsh-e Rustam (in Persian: نقش رستم Næqš-e Rostæm) is an archaeological site located about 3 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars (Pars) province (Persis), Iran. This place is called Næqš-e Rostæm "Picture of Rostam" because of the Sassanid carvings below the tombs, which were thought to represent the Persian mythical hero Rostam.

Naqsh-e Rustam, contains seven tombs which belongs to Achaemenian kings. One of those at Naqsh-e Rustam is expressly declared in its inscriptions to be the tomb of Darius I. The three other tombs, besides that of Darius I, are believed to be those of Xerxes I, Artaxerxes I, and Darius II. The two completed graves behind Persepolis probably belong to Artaxerxes II and Artaxerxes III. The unfinished one might be that of ~, who reigned at the longest two years, but is more likely that of Darius III, last of the Achaemenian line, who was overthrown by Alexander the Great.

In addition to tombs, there are also seven gigantic rock carvings in Naqsh-e Rustam, below the tombs, belonging to the Sassanid kings.


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Shapur-e 1
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triumph of Shapur I over the Roman Emperor Valerian, and Philip the Arabian
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Postby PAARSE » Wed Jan 10, 2007 6:11 am

Etymology


In former ages, the names Āryānā and Persis were used to describe the region which is today known as the Iranian plateau. The earliest Iranian reference to the word (airya/arya/aryana etc), however, predates the Iranian prophet Zoroaster (est. anywhere between 1200 to 1800 BCE, according to Greek sources, as early as 6000 BCE[7][8] and is attested in non-Gathic Avestan; it appears as airya, meaning noble/spiritual/elevated; as airya dainhava (Yt.8.36, 52) meaning the land of the Aryans; and as airyana vaejah, the original land of the Aryans."[6]


During the Achaemenid dynasty (550-330 BCE), the Persian people called their provincial homeland Pārsa, the Old Persian name for Cyrus the Great's kingdom, which belonged to the Persian tribe of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranians and which is retained in the term "Pars" or "Fars" (from which the adjective "Farsi" is derived). It is part of the heartland of Iran and is identified in historical maps, such as Eratosthenes's, and in modern maps.

However, the country as a whole was called Aryanam. The word Ariya, meaning "noble", "spiritual", and "elevated", is attested in the Inscriptions of Darius the Great and his son, Xerxes I. It is used both as a linguistic and an ethnic designation. Darius refers to these meanings in the Behistun inscription (DBiv.89), which is written in a language referred to as airyan, or more commonly as Old Persian. Both Darius and Xerxes state in inscriptions at Naqsh-i Rustam (DNa.14), Susa (DSe.13), and Persepolis (XPh.13):


Stonecarving from Persepolis showing Darius I the Great of Persia (521-486 BC).
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Adam Pārsa, Pārsahyā puça; Ariya, Ariya ciça... I am Persian, son of a Persian; an Aryan, from an Aryan lineage.


In Parthian times (248 BCE – 224 CE), Aryanam was modified to Aryan. In the early Sassanid Period (224–651 CE), it had already evolved to Middle Persian Ērān or Ērān Shahr which finally resulted in New Persian Iran or Iran Shahr.[9]

At the time of the Achaemenian empire, the Greeks called the country Persis, the Greek name for Pars (Fars), the central region where the empire was founded; this passed into Latin and became Persia, the name widely used in Western countries which causes confusion as Persia is actually Pars (Fars) province.[10][6][11]

In the twentieth century, a dispute arose over whether Iran or Persia is the correct name for the country. On 21 March 1935, the ruler of the country, Reza Shah Pahlavi, issued a decree asking foreign delegates to use the term Iran in formal correspondence in accordance with the fact that "Persia" was a term used for a country called "Iran" in Persian.
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Postby babara » Wed Jan 10, 2007 8:51 am

I want to go historical places or place you are showing here I think It is interesting and I want to take a photo myself also. I'm sure It will have to be funny. :D :D
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Postby Oriani » Wed Jan 10, 2007 8:38 pm

Yes and as I said before, every country has its own beauty and exotic wonders!
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Postby babara » Thu Jan 11, 2007 4:11 am

Oriani wrote:Yes and as I said before, every country has its own beauty and exotic wonders!


You are right!
It is interesting.
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Postby PAARSE » Thu Jan 11, 2007 8:48 am

Next Post, please
Last edited by PAARSE on Thu Jan 11, 2007 8:59 am, edited 1 time in total.
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