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What Is A Sentence?

In simple terms, a sentence is a set of words that contain:

  1. a subject (what the sentence is about, the topic of the sentence)
  2. a predicate (what is said about the subject)

Look at this simple example:

<----- sentence ----->
subject predicate
verb  
You speak English.

The above example sentence is very short. Of course, a sentence can be longer and more complicated, but basically there is always a subject and a predicate. Look at this longer example:

<----- sentence ----->
subject predicate
verb  
Ram and Tara speak English when they are working.

Note that the predicate always contains a verb. Sometimes, in fact, the predicate is only a verb:

<----- sentence ----->
subject predicate
verb  
Smoke rises.  

So we can say that a sentence must contain at least a subject and verb.

There is one apparent exception to this – the imperative. When someone gives a command (the imperative), they usually do not use a subject. They don't say the subject because it is obvious - the subject is YOU! Look at these examples of the imperative, with and without a subject:

<----- sentence ----->
subject predicate
verb  
  Stop!  
  Wait a minute!
You look!  
Everybody look!  

Note that a sentence expresses a complete thought. Here are some examples of complete and incomplete thoughts:

  complete thought?
He opened the door. YES
Come in, please.
Do you like coffee?
people who work hard NO
a fast-moving animal with big ears

Note also that a sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop* or a question mark or an exclamation mark. Look at these examples:

People need food.
How are you?
Look out!
Actually, it is not easy to define a sentence. Grammarians do not all agree on what is or is not a sentence. For the purposes of introduction, this page describes rather simple sentences. Of course, sentences can be much longer and more complex, and these will be covered on other pages.

* British English = full stop | American English = period

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