How to Pronounce -ed in English
The past simple tense and past participle of all regular verbs end in -ed. For example:
In addition, many adjectives are made from the past participle and so end in -ed. For example:
- I like painted furniture.
The question is: How do we pronounce the -ed?
The answer is: In 3 ways - / Id/ or / t/ or / d/
|If the base verb ends in one of these sounds:||example base verb*:||example|
|voiced||all other sounds,|
* note that it is the sound that is important, not the letter or spelling. For example, "fax" ends in the letter "x" but the sound /s/; "like" ends in the letter "e" but the sound /k/.
The following -ed words used as adjectives are pronounced with /Id/:
So we say:
- an aged man /Id/
- a blessed nuisance /Id/
- a dogged persistence /Id/
- a learned professor - the professor, who was truly learned /Id/
- a wretched beggar - the beggar was wretched /Id/
But when used as real verbs (past simple and past participle), the normal rules apply and we say:
- he aged quickly /d/
- he blessed me /t/
- they dogged him /d/
- he has learned well /d/ or /t/