"Cardinal numbers" are ordinary numbers like 1, 2, 3. In the chart below, you can see how we make numbers from 0 to 100 and then some units above that. You can hear how we say some of these numbers in this numbers song.
The numbers from 13 (thirteen) to 19 (nineteen) all end in -teen and are called "the teens". This is why people from thirteen to nineteen years of age are called "teenagers".
For numbers in the hundreds, the British usually say "and" but the Americans often do not say "and":
Be careful with billions and trillions in English!
In American English, and now in British English, a billion has nine zeros (so, one billion = one thousand million). Before, in British English one billion had twelve zeros (one million million).
In American English, and now in British English, a trillion has twelve zeros (so, one trillion = one million million). Before, in British English one trillion had eighteen zeros (one million million million).