Human Body - Medical English

One of the first things you need to know when working as a medical professional in English is the parts of the body. You will need to learn the names of the internal (inside the skin) and external body parts. You will also need to learn the words for the functions of each of these body parts. Here are the basics to get you started.


headInside the head is the brain, which is responsible for thinking. The top of a person's scalp is covered with hair. Beneath the hairline at the front of the face is the forehead. Underneath the forehead are the eyes for seeing, the nose for smelling, and the mouth for eating. On the outside of the mouth are the lips, and on the inside of the mouth are the teeth for biting and the tongue for tasting. Food is swallowed down the throat. At the sides of the face are the cheeks and at the sides of the head are the ears for hearing. At the bottom of a person's face is the chin. The jaw is located on the inside of the cheeks and chin. The neck is what attaches the head to the upper body.

Learn English with Gymglish EnglishClub

Upper Body

upper bodyAt the top and front of the upper body, just below the neck is the collar bone. On the front side of the upper body is the chest, which in women includes the breasts. Babies suck on the nipples of their mother's breasts. Beneath the ribcage are the stomach and the waist. The navel, more commonly referred to as the belly button, is located here as well. On the inside of the upper body are the heart for pumping blood and the lungs for breathing. The rear side of the upper body is called the back, inside which the spine connects the upper body to the lower body.

Upper Limbs (arms)
armThe arms are attached to the shoulders. Beneath this area is called the armpit or underarm. The upper arms have the muscles known as triceps and biceps. The joint halfway down the arm is called the elbow. Between the elbow and the next joint, the wrist, is the forearm. Below the wrist is the hand with four fingers and one thumb. Beside the thumb is the index finger. Beside the index finger is the middle finger, followed by the ring finger and the little finger. At the ends of the fingers are fingernails.

Lower Body

lower bodyBelow the waist, on left and right, are the hips. Between the hips are the reproductive organs, the penis (male) or the vagina (female). At the back of the lower body are the buttocks for sitting on. They are also commonly referred to as the rear end or the bum (especially with children). The internal organs in the lower body include the intestines for digesting food, the bladder for holding liquid waste, as well as the liver and the kidneys. This area also contains the woman's uterus, which holds a baby when a woman is pregnant.

Lower Limbs (legs)
legThe top of the leg is called the thigh, and the joint in the middle of the leg is the knee. The front of the lower leg is the shin and the back of the lower leg is the calf. The ankle connects the foot to the leg. Each foot has five toes. The smallest toe is often called the little toe while the large one is called the big toe. At the ends of the toes are toenails.