Swan and others have asked this question regarding English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) users:
“is there indeed a case for saying that some nonnative usages are not really mistakes at all, but perfectly valid forms which simply do not happen to conform to NS norms?” (Swan, 2012)
My question to members of this forum is: Are these mistakes when used in an ELF (English as a Lingua Franca), NNES to NNES context? If we call them mistakes, whose standard or model are we citing?
Typical of ELF users.
● They do not use the third-person singular present tense -s marking but use the same form for all persons (I like, she like)
● They use the relative pronouns who and which interchangeably instead of who for humans and which for non-humans (as in things who and people which)
● They omit definite and indefinite articles where they are obligatory in Standard English, or insert them where they do not occur in Standard English (e.g. they have a respect for all, he is very good person)
● They pluralize nouns that do not have plural forms in Standard English (informations, knowledges, advices)
● They use the demonstrative this with both singular and plural nouns (this country, this countries)
● They extend the uses of certain ‘general’ verbs to cover more meanings than in Standard English, especially make, but also do, have, put, take (make sport, make a discussion, put attention)
Feel free to post here :)
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