THE ANCIENT PERSIA (IRAN)

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Postby Oriani » Sat Dec 30, 2006 4:33 pm

Those columns look like the Greek ones!!! Nice!! Exotic!

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Postby PAARSE » Mon Jan 01, 2007 4:52 am

The Gate of All Nations


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To the north of the Apadana stands the impressive Gate of Xerxes, from which a broad stairway descends. Xerxes, who built this structure, named it "The Gate of All Countries, " for all visitors had to pass through this, the only entrance to the terrace, on their way to the Throne Hall to pay homage to the king. The building consisted of one spacious room whose roof was supported by four stone columns with bell-shaped bases. Parallel to the inner walls of this room ran a stone bench, interrupted at the doorways. The exterior walls of the structure, made of thick mud brick, were decorated with numerous niches. Each of the three walls, on the east, west, and south, had a very large stone doorway. A pair of colossal bulls guarded the western entrance; two assyrianized man-bulls stood at the eastern doorway. Engraved above each of the four colossi is a trilingual inscription attesting to Xerxes having built and completed the gate. The doorway on the south, opening toward the Apadana, is the widest of the three. Pivoting devices found on the inner corners of all the doors indicate that they must have had two-leaved doors, which were probably made of wood and covered with sheets of ornamented metal.

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Postby PAARSE » Mon Jan 01, 2007 4:59 am

The Throne Hall

Next to the Apadana, the second largest building of the Persepolis Terrace is the Throne Hall (also called the "Hundred-Column Hall"), which was started by Xerxes and completed by his son Artaxerxes I (end of the fifth century B.C.). Its eight stone doorways are decorated on the south and north with reliefs of throne scenes and on the east and west with scenes depicting the king in combat with monsters. In addition, the northern portico of the building is flanked by two colossal stone bulls. In the beginning of Xerxes' reign the Throne Hall was used mainly for receptions for representatives of all the subject nations of the empire. Later, when the Treasury proved to be too small, the Throne Hall also served as a storehouse and, above all, as a place to display more adequately objects, both tribute and booty, from the royal treasury. Concerning this, Schmidt wrote of the striking parallel in a modern example of a combined throne hall and palace museum where the Shah of Iran stores and exhibits the royal treasures in rooms and galleries adjoining his throne hall in the Gulistan Palace at Teheran.

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Postby PAARSE » Mon Jan 01, 2007 8:32 am

PASARGAD


I am Cyrus.
King of the world. When I entered Babylon... I did not allow anyone to terrorise the land... I kept in view the needs of Babylon and all its sanctuaries to promote their well-being... I put an end to their misfortune.


From The First Charter of the Rights of Nations

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The city of Pasargadae is located 70 kilometers north of Takht-e Jamshid on the plain of Morghab. Here there are some remains of the first capital of Achaemenids, which can truly be called the cradle of Irans documented history. The name of the city has been derived from that of a Persian tribe, meaning The Camp of the Persians. Unlike Takht-e Jamshid Pasargadae is not located on a terrace. It is composed of several separate and sporadic palaces in a vast park. Although the capital was later transferred to Takht-e Jamshid the ceremonies of coronation were held at Pasargadae so it never failed to be an important center. From the cultural viewpoint, too, Pasargadae is very significant. Cyrus the Great made the greatest and most powerful kingdom all over the world of the Persian nomads in the shortest conceivable period of time. He was also the founder of a new and splendid style in the art of architecture, which evolved in Takht-e Jamshid and became known as Achaemenid style. All the palaces of Pasargadae have been situated in the beautiful lush gardens. The most important remains found at Pasargadae are :

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Tomb of Cyrus
The name of Pasargadae is always associated with that of the tomb of Cyrus. This construction is located at the beginning of the Pasargadae complex. It is constructed of huge, white limestone blocks, without any window, resting on a rectangular, stepped plinth, with six receding stages. It has only one entrance door. In spite of its simplicity the tomb suggests the power and authority of the founder of Achaemenid dynasty.

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The Gatehouse
There is a construction, located one-kilometer northeast of the tomb of Cyrus, which is supposed to be the entrance of Pasargadae. The hall of this palace has eight soft and polished stone columns. The entire floor of this building is covered with two layers of white stone.

The Bridge
The remains of a bridge across a stream have been found 150 meters west of the gatehouse. Two stone walls had been built on both sides and there were nine stone columns on the bed of the stream. Apparently the bridge was a connective route between the gatehouse and the audience hall.

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The Audience hall
There is a palace with huge columns, 100 meters to the left of the bridge. The palace was used to receive the agents and nobles of different countries who came to see Cyurs the Great. The central hall of the palace had eight columns of which only one has wonderfully remained on its place since 2500 years ago. Four doorways to the central hall were ornamented with relief.

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Cyrus Private Palace
This palace is located 300 meters away from the audience hall. The design of the palace is like the letter H and its central hall is ornamented with 30 columns. The eastern iwan of the hall also has 40 columns. There is an inscription in cuneiform on a wall of the iwan written in three languages the translation of which is : I am Cyrus, the Achaemenid king . The western iwan also had 24 columns. The walls of the palace and iwans were ornamented with a lot of relief, which are not left. It is supposed that this palace was the private palace of Cyrus the Great. The other remains found at Pasargadae are the Solomons prison, Arg and chapel.

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Postby PAARSE » Tue Jan 02, 2007 9:10 am

Naqsh-e Rustam

Naqsh-e Rustam (in Persian: نقش رستم Næqš-e Rostæm) is an archaeological site located about 3 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars (Pars) province (Persis), Iran. This place is called Næqš-e Rostæm "Picture of Rostam" because of the Sassanid carvings below the tombs, which were thought to represent the Persian mythical hero Rostam.

Naqsh-e Rustam, contains seven tombs which belongs to Achaemenian kings. One of those at Naqsh-e Rustam is expressly declared in its inscriptions to be the tomb of Darius I. The three other tombs, besides that of Darius I, are believed to be those of Xerxes I, Artaxerxes I, and Darius II. The two completed graves behind Persepolis probably belong to Artaxerxes II and Artaxerxes III. The unfinished one might be that of ~, who reigned at the longest two years, but is more likely that of Darius III, last of the Achaemenian line, who was overthrown by Alexander the Great.

In addition to tombs, there are also seven gigantic rock carvings in Naqsh-e Rustam, below the tombs, belonging to the Sassanid kings.


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Shapur-e 1
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triumph of Shapur I over the Roman Emperor Valerian, and Philip the Arabian
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Postby PAARSE » Wed Jan 10, 2007 6:11 am

Etymology


In former ages, the names Āryānā and Persis were used to describe the region which is today known as the Iranian plateau. The earliest Iranian reference to the word (airya/arya/aryana etc), however, predates the Iranian prophet Zoroaster (est. anywhere between 1200 to 1800 BCE, according to Greek sources, as early as 6000 BCE[7][8] and is attested in non-Gathic Avestan; it appears as airya, meaning noble/spiritual/elevated; as airya dainhava (Yt.8.36, 52) meaning the land of the Aryans; and as airyana vaejah, the original land of the Aryans."[6]


During the Achaemenid dynasty (550-330 BCE), the Persian people called their provincial homeland Pārsa, the Old Persian name for Cyrus the Great's kingdom, which belonged to the Persian tribe of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranians and which is retained in the term "Pars" or "Fars" (from which the adjective "Farsi" is derived). It is part of the heartland of Iran and is identified in historical maps, such as Eratosthenes's, and in modern maps.

However, the country as a whole was called Aryanam. The word Ariya, meaning "noble", "spiritual", and "elevated", is attested in the Inscriptions of Darius the Great and his son, Xerxes I. It is used both as a linguistic and an ethnic designation. Darius refers to these meanings in the Behistun inscription (DBiv.89), which is written in a language referred to as airyan, or more commonly as Old Persian. Both Darius and Xerxes state in inscriptions at Naqsh-i Rustam (DNa.14), Susa (DSe.13), and Persepolis (XPh.13):


Stonecarving from Persepolis showing Darius I the Great of Persia (521-486 BC).
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Adam Pārsa, Pārsahyā puça; Ariya, Ariya ciça... I am Persian, son of a Persian; an Aryan, from an Aryan lineage.


In Parthian times (248 BCE – 224 CE), Aryanam was modified to Aryan. In the early Sassanid Period (224–651 CE), it had already evolved to Middle Persian Ērān or Ērān Shahr which finally resulted in New Persian Iran or Iran Shahr.[9]

At the time of the Achaemenian empire, the Greeks called the country Persis, the Greek name for Pars (Fars), the central region where the empire was founded; this passed into Latin and became Persia, the name widely used in Western countries which causes confusion as Persia is actually Pars (Fars) province.[10][6][11]

In the twentieth century, a dispute arose over whether Iran or Persia is the correct name for the country. On 21 March 1935, the ruler of the country, Reza Shah Pahlavi, issued a decree asking foreign delegates to use the term Iran in formal correspondence in accordance with the fact that "Persia" was a term used for a country called "Iran" in Persian.

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babara
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Postby babara » Wed Jan 10, 2007 8:51 am

I want to go historical places or place you are showing here I think It is interesting and I want to take a photo myself also. I'm sure It will have to be funny. :D :D

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Oriani
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Postby Oriani » Wed Jan 10, 2007 8:38 pm

Yes and as I said before, every country has its own beauty and exotic wonders!

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Postby babara » Thu Jan 11, 2007 4:11 am

Oriani wrote:Yes and as I said before, every country has its own beauty and exotic wonders!


You are right!
It is interesting.

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Postby PAARSE » Thu Jan 11, 2007 8:48 am

Next Post, please
Last edited by PAARSE on Thu Jan 11, 2007 8:59 am, edited 1 time in total.

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Postby PAARSE » Thu Jan 11, 2007 8:58 am

Falak-ol-Aflak Castle

Falak-ol-Aflak Castle (in Persian: قلعه فلاک الافلاک‎), in ancient times was known as Dežbār as well as Shāpūr-Khwāst, is one of the most impressive castles in Iran. It is situated on the top of a large hill with the same name within the city of Khorramabad, the regional capital of Lorestan province. This gigantic structure was built during the Sassanid era (226–651).

The Khoramabad River runs past the eastern and south-western side of the Falak-ol-Aflak hill providing the fortress with an element of natural protection. Today, the western and northern sides of the hill are bordered by the residential districts of Khorramabad.


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History
Falak ol-Aflak castle is amongst the most important structures built during the Sassanid era. It has been known by a number of names since it was built over 1800 years ago. Recorded names have referred to it as Shapur-Khast or Sabr-Khast fortress, Dezbaz, Khoramabad castle, and ultimately the Falak ol-Aflak Castle.

During the Pahlavi Dynasty it was used as a prison

Architectural Layout
The foundations of the actual castle measure approximately 300 meters by 400 meters. The height of the entire structure, including the hill, reaches to 40 meters above the surrounding area.

The castle itself covers an area of 5,300 square meters. It is 2,860 meters in perimeter and its tallest wall is 22.5 meters high. This space is divided into four large halls, and their associated rooms and coridors. The rooms all surround two courtyards with the following measurements: the first courtyard measures 31x22.50m and the second 29x21 meters. When originally built the castle used to have 12 towers, but only 8 remain standing today.

The building's entrace is situated towards the north, within the body of the northwestern tower.

The water well of the fortress lies in the area behind the first courtyard. Reaching a depth of 40 meters, the majority of the well's shaft is carved into the rock in order to reach the source of the Golestan spring. The well remains usable to this day.

The materials used in the construction of the fortress are mud-bricks, mud-fired bricks, stone, wood, and mortar.




Surrounding structures
Archeological studies have identified the existence of a two layered rampart with twelve towers around the present day construction. This surrounding rampart mainly stretched westward. From the twelve original towers, only two remain and these are situated northwest and southwest of the existing fortress.



Dehumidifier
Falak ol-Aflak Castle appears to have been built with a dehumidifier system which is one of the wonders of the ancient world.[citation needed]


Previously, the experts believed these dehumidifier canals with a height of more than 1 meter covering all the area beneath the castle were hide-outs for the residents. But in reality, due to being aware of the changing climate in the region and the underground waters, the Sassanid engineers have equipped the castle with a dehumidifier.


Falak ol-Aflak castle is made with different materials like stone and wood that are so vulnerable to humidity. That’s why the castle was built on the highest point of the city of Khoram-abad, so that the wind could penetrate the building and dry its foundations.

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Postby Efantastic » Sat Jan 13, 2007 6:06 am

WOW WOW WOW....wonderful

thank you>>>> I hope to visit Iran >>>

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Postby PAARSE » Sun Jan 14, 2007 8:59 am

Susa


Susa (Biblical Shushan; also Greek: Σέλεύχεια, transliterated as Seleukeia or Seleukheia; Latin Seleucia ad Eulaeum; modern Shush, coordinates: 32.18922° N 48.25778° E) was an ancient city of the Elamite, Persian and Parthian empires of Iran, located about 150 miles east of the Tigris River in Khuzestan province of Iran. As well as being an archaeological site, Susa is also a lively village due to the devotion of Shi'a Muslims and the Persian Jewish community for the prophet Daniel.

Susa is one of the oldest-known settlements of the region, probably founded about 4000 BCE; though the first traces of an inhabited village date back to 7000 BCE. Evidence of a painted- pottery civilization dates back to 5000 BCE. In historic times, Susa was the capital of the Elamite Empire. Its name originates from their language; it was written variously (Šušan, Šušun etc.) and was apparently pronounced Šušən. Šušan was invaded by both Babylonian Empires as well as the Assyrian Empire in violent campaigns. After the Babylonian conquest, the name was misunderstood to be connected with the Semitic word Šušan, "lily."

Susa is mentioned in the Ketuvim of the Hebrew Bible, mainly in Esther but also once each in Nehemiah and Daniel. Both Daniel and Nehemiah lived in Susa during the Babylonian captivity of Judah of the 6th century BCE. Esther became queen there, and saved the Jews from genocide. A tomb presumed to be that of Daniel is located in the area, known as Shush-Daniel. The tomb is marked by an unusual white, stone cone, which is neither regular nor symmetric.



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A tablet unearthed in 1854 by Henry Austin Layard in Nineveh reveals Ashurbanipal as an "avenger", seeking retribution for the humiliations the Elamites had inflicted on the Mesopotamians over the centuries:

"Susa, the great holy city, abode of their Gods, seat of their mysteries, I conquered. I entered its palaces, I opened their treasuries where silver and gold, goods and wealth were amassed...I destroyed the ziggurat of Susa. I smashed its shining copper horns. I reduced the temples of Elam to naught; their gods and goddesses I scattered to the winds. The tombs of their ancient and recent kings I devastated, I exposed to the sun, and I carried away their bones toward the land of Ashur. I devastated the provinces of Elam and on their lands I sowed salt."[2]


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The city was taken by the Achaemenid Persians under Cyrus the Great in 538 BCE. Under Cyrus' son Cambyses II, the capital of the empire moved from Pasargadae to Susa.


centuriesThe city lost some of its importance when Alexander of Macedon conquered it in 331 BCE and destroyed the first Persian Empire, but after Alexander's vast empire collapsed upon his death, Susa became one of the two capitals (along with Ctesiphon) of Parthia. Susa fell to the Seleucid Empire during which it was renamed Seleukeia. Susa became a frequent place of refuge for Parthian and later, the Persian Sassanid kings, as the Romans sacked Ctesiphon five different times between 116 and 297 CE. Typically, the Parthian rulers wintered in Susa, and spent the summer in Ctesiphon.

The Roman emperor Trajan captured Susa in 116 CE, but soon was forced to withdraw, due to revolts in his rear areas. This advance marked the greatest eastern penetration by the Romans.

Susa was destroyed at least twice in its history. In 647 BCE, the Assyrian king Assurbanipal leveled the city during the course of a war in which the people of Susa apparently participated on the other side. The second destruction of Susa took place in 638 CE, when the Muslim armies first conquered Persia. Finally, in [1218] CE, the city was completely destroyed


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Postby PAARSE » Thu Jan 25, 2007 4:39 am

Taq-e Kasra


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Ctesiphon
The Sasanian Capital City


The large round city , situated on the left bank of the Tigris, across the river from the Hellenistic city of Seleucia, has been identified as the great Parthian and Sasanian capital city of Tisfun, known to the Romans as Ctesiphon , the Al-Madain (“the cities”), of Arabic sources. Situated about 35 km south of the later city of Baghdad, in present-day Iraq, Ctesipon was the first Sasanian foundation in this urban zone, named Veh-Ardashir, “the beautiful (good) city of Ardashir,” after its founder, the Sasanian king Ardashir I (AD 224-241). Ctesipon was the royal residence, imperial and administrative center, and a commercial and agricultural hub of the empire in the densely populated Sasanian province of Babylonia/Asoristan. Although Ctesiphon served only as a winter residence for Sasanian kings who spent summers in the cooler highlands of the Persian plateau, it remained the capital and coronation city of the Sasanian empire from its foundation by Ardashir I until its conquest by Arab armies in AD 637.

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Postby PAARSE » Thu Jan 25, 2007 4:45 am

The Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian empire (AD 224-642) was the creation of the last great Iranian monarchy before the Arab conquest of Western Asia in the seventh century. The Sasanians are best remembered for their distinctive cultural expressions and for the longevity of their more than four centuries of rule. The Sasanian age was a dynamic time of cultural and economic revival when a new Persian ruling house in southwestern Iran, like the Achaemenid Persians of a thousand years before, extended its dominion over much of Western and Central Asia, in territories that stretched from Transcaucasia to the Indus. The Sasanian age was also a time of intensified trade and exchange, when Iran served as a major gateway to the transcontinental Silk Road that linked the West with China and the Far East.

The Sasanians came into power when Ardashir I, a provincial ruler of Persis, in the Iranian heartland of present-day Fars province, defeated his Parthian overlord, to become the ruler of a new dynasty in Western Asia named after an ancestral figure. By the mid third century, ambitious Sasanian kings extended Persian power across almost 2,000 miles, from the Persian Gulf to the Black Sea, and from Syria's Mediterranean shore to Afghanistan.

A principal achievement of the Sasanian dynasty is its replacement of feudal leadership with centralized authority, topped by the king. Sasanian Iran, which remained a highly centralized state for over 400 years, forged a fusion of the offices of church and state, of religious authority and secular rule. As head of state, the dynasty's founder Ardashir (224-241), a descendant of the Zoroastrian priesthood of Fars, also assumed guardianship of the sacred fire, the symbol of the national religion. This symbol is explicit on Sasanian coins where the reigning monarch, with his crown and regalia of office, appears on the obverse, backed by the sacred fire, the symbol of the national religion, on the coin's reverse.

The search for meaning in Sasanian art requires consideration of that art's function, of the ways art is used in Sasanian society. It is the values of the Sasanian elite that inspire Sasanian decorative arts such as engraved gem or sealstone. This widespread and ubiquitous cultural relic was a portable, functional and often highly valued article, produced for special purposes such as the fulfillment of contracts and for commercial exchange. Archaeological evidence of the use of the Sasanian seal is preserved in ancient clay impressions found on documents. Intended as contracts or for the purposes of trade and exchange, documents were tagged with wet lumps of clay impressed with seals as vouchers. The seal was originally attached to strings that once wrapped the letter or perhaps the covered goods. The clay seal impression was to be broken and discarded only at the time of the use of the sealed article.

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Postby fortminor » Tue Jan 30, 2007 3:56 pm

Thanks PAARSE for sharing these nice information. :)

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Postby babara » Wed Jan 31, 2007 10:59 am

fortminor wrote:Thanks PAARSE for sharing these nice information. :)


Yes,nice information.

Your new avatar is so beautiful,Fortminor!! :P

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Postby fortminor » Wed Jan 31, 2007 11:50 am

babara wrote:Yes,nice information.
Your new avatar is so beautiful,Fortminor!! :P


Thanks babara,beauty is in the eyes of beholder! :wink:

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Postby Dexter » Sat Feb 03, 2007 7:08 am

fortminor wrote:Thanks PAARSE for sharing these nice information. :)

yeah... thanks PAARSE :)

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PAARSE
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Postby PAARSE » Sat Feb 03, 2007 3:54 pm

You're welcome , my dear friends...

I'll try to add more.

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Postby PAARSE » Tue Feb 06, 2007 5:02 pm

Norooz

In harmony with the rebirth of nature, the Iranian New Year Celebration, or NOROOZ, always begins on the first day of spring. Nowruz ceremonies are symbolic representations of two ancient concepts - the End and the Rebirth; or Good and Evil. A few weeks before the New Year, Iranians clean and rearrange their homes. They make new clothes, bake pastries and germinate seeds as sign of renewal. The ceremonial cloth is set up in each household. Troubadours, referred to as Haji Firuz, disguise themselves with makeup and wear brightly colored outfits of satin. These Haji Firuz, singing and dancing, parade as a carnival through the streets with tambourines, kettle drums, and trumpets to spread good cheer and the news of the coming new year.
The origins of NoRuz are unknown, but they go back several thousand years predating the Achaemenian Dynasty. The ancient Iranians had a festival called "Farvardgan" which lasted ten days, and took place at the end of the solar year. It appears that this was a festival of sorrow and mourning, signifying the end of life while the festival of NoRuz, at the beginning of spring signified rebirth, and was a time of great joy and celebration.


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The other ancient symbolic representation of NoRuz is based around the idea of the triumph of good over evil. According to the Shah-nameh (The Book of Kings), the national Iranian epic by Ferdowsi, NoRuz came into being during the reign of the mythical King Jamshid; when he defeated the evil demons (divs) seizing their treasures, becoming master of everything but the heavens and bringing prosperity to his people. To reach the heavens, Jamshid ordered a throne to be built with the jewels he had captured. He then sat on the throne and commanded the demons to lift him up into the sky. When the sun's rays hit the throne, the sky was illuminated with a multitude of colours. The people were amazed at the King's power and they showered him with even more jewels and treasures. This day of great celebration was named NoRuz, and was recognised as the first day of the year.

Happy Spring

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