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human cloning from the perspective of Islamic philosophers and its ethical requirements
Simulation is one of the important issues as a sign of human scientific progress. On the other hand in the religion-oriented societies, especially religions like Islam who emphasize the social sphere in addition to the sphere of worship, new scientific findings, especially where human existence is the issue, require development of different levels of religious knowledge to obtain the proper understanding of religious attitude to these findings. relation of human cloning problem with Islamic teachings can be argued in several aspects. first what is the truth towards the creation of man ? Secondly, is there human or non-human and if human what jurisprudential rulings it emerges? And third, what moral sentences notice is about that human? In the sphere of moral debate we have two problems. First, what this new man has as moral imperative and conditions and second, Moral issue of cloning is in what position? In this paper, thanks to the comments of Islamic philosophers, especially comments of “Mulla Sadra”, after proving that this process is still divine creation of human, argue the situations of humanity of this new man. so we conclude that if this is human he has moral issues like other humans and we discuss this with regards to the existence of God and creation beings and divine grace. finally we will discuss the ethical situation of cloning and prove that if the cloning was perfect and proved that the result is human, this will have a kind of moral relativism based on the usage but in its essence is neither moral nor immoral.
keywords: Islamic philosophy, human cloning, bioethics, human creation
if we want to understand the concept of Human cloning and its implications we must consider the meaning of human and being a human. This is a philosophical problem that also has been considered in the religious texts.
There is nothing that we know more intimately than being and humanity of us, but there is nothing that is harder to explain. We know that we are humans but we don't know the factors of humanity. If we see a robot that is completely similar to a human and do what we did and understand like a real human and speak well, how can we know that it is a robot? You may answer that there is no robot invented like this and we can not make such system. Your answer may be true in this time but our argument is not based on the outside world but we question from a philosophical perspective. Suppose all of the people around you are robots and treat exactly like humans and you don't know. How can you test them and how can you be sured of humanity of such beings? True understanding of the factors of the humanity will help us to test the humanity of things that we are in doubt of their humanity. So this problem is directly related to our discussion about human cloning and simulation problem.
Many have tried to explain this problem but nearly all of them is based on a materialistic and empirical view. It means that they are ,like most of modern scientists and philosophers, using the empirical methods for investigating the main factors of humanity and they are using some kind of psychology that is based on the materialistic interpretation of the world.
I believe that this view is not perfect enough to truly describe the humanity because of the special nature of this problem. This problem is hard and unsolvable for those who stick their minds to material substances and see all of the world materially. Yes, I can not test the humanity of my friend by empirical experiment but there is another way for performing that and that is the intellectual method. my intellect can do it and can understand it. Although some premises is needed that we will mention later.
You will see in this article that the humanity is not based on the physical structure of our bodies and also is not completely isolated from it. According to main principles of Islamic philosophy we will see that preparing a substance in such way that it can accept the human soul and can be managed by this abstract soul , will make it eligible for being a real human.