Nuremberg Code terminology
Nuremberg Code (noun): A set of ethical guidelines for research and experimentation involving human subjects. — The Nuremberg Code was established after World War II to prevent unethical experiments.
Wordlist and vocabulary with example sentences
Image: BBC Select
The Nuremberg Trials were a series of military tribunals held after World War II to prosecute prominent leaders, officials, industrialists, and financiers of Nazi Germany for crimes against humanity, war crimes, and other wartime atrocities. Conducted in the city of Nuremberg, Germany, from 1945 to 1949, these trials were notable for the prosecution of high-ranking Nazi officials and collaborators. The most famous of these trials was the Trial of the Major War Criminals, held from November 20, 1945, to October 1, 1946, where 24 of the most significant leaders of the Third Reich were prosecuted by the Allied powers, namely the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and France. The Nuremberg Trials set significant legal precedents, emphasizing that individuals, including heads of state, could be held criminally responsible for their actions during times of war. The trials also led to the establishment of the Nuremberg Code, which set forth ethical guidelines for human experimentation, and laid the groundwork for subsequent international war crimes trials and the establishment of the International Criminal Court.
assent (noun): Agreement, approval, consent. — In some cases, assent from minors is also required.
autonomy (noun): The right of an individual to make decisions for themselves. — Respecting patient autonomy is crucial in medical research and experimentation.
beneficence (noun): The act of doing good or producing good results. — Researchers must act with beneficence towards their subjects. | Mere beneficence does not justify unethical behaviour (the end does not justify the means).
coercion (noun): The practice of persuading by using force or threats. — Coercion in obtaining consent is ethically unacceptable.
compulsion (noun): The act of forcing someone to do something. — The Nuremberg Code prohibits any form of compulsion in research. | Covid-19 vaccine mandates were a form of compulsion.
competence (noun): The ability to do something well and efficiently. — Only those with competence should give informed consent.
comprehension (noun): The ability to understand something. — Ensuring the participant's comprehension is vital before obtaining consent.consent (noun): Agreement, approval, assent. If the patient is asked to give consent without first being informed of all potential risks, then the Nuremberg Code, not to mention common decency, has been violated.
deception (noun): The act of misleading or deceiving. — Deception in the marketing of Covid-19 vaccines is tantamount to fraud, which nullifies the manufacturer's legal immunity in the event of injury and death.
disclosure (noun): The act of making information known. — Full disclosure of the study's purpose is essential for informed consent.
ethical (adjective): Morally right or acceptable. — Following the Nuremberg Code ensures ethical research practices.
experiment (noun): A scientific procedure to test a hypothesis. — The Nuremberg Code provides guidelines for conducting ethical experiments.
inform (verb): Give somebody the facts and relevant information. — Before vaccinating a patient, or performing any procedure, a doctor is required to inform the patient about the risks, including possible injuries and death.
informed (adjective): Having or showing knowledge of relevant information. — An informed patient is aware of all possible risks from a particular procedure.
informed consent (noun): Permission (agreement) given by a patient for a medical or experimental procedure after all being informed (made aware) of all possible risks. — Every patient has the right to give informed consent before any procedure. | Informed consent is "consent" given by a patient after being fully "informed" of the risks (usually by a doctor). | In the panic and hysteria of the Covid-19 event many people were vaccinated without being asked for informed consent - a clear violation of the Nuremberg Code.
mandate (noun): An official order or authorization to act in a certain way. — Some argue that mandates for Covid-19 vaccination without informed consent violated (and violate) the Nuremberg Code.
non-therapeutic (adjective): Not related to the healing of disease. — Non-therapeutic experiments require even stricter ethical considerations.
Nuremberg Code (noun): A set of ethical guidelines for medical research and experimentation involving human subjects. — The Nuremberg Code was established after World War II to prevent unethical experiments.
protocol (noun): A detailed plan of a scientific experiment. — The research protocol was reviewed for ethical compliance.
risk (noun): The potential for harm or loss, such as the potential for injury or death following Covid-19 vaccination. — The risks of the vaccination were never clearly explained to the vaccinees.
subject (noun): An individual who is the focus of an experiment. — The subject was supposed to be informed of all potential risks.
therapeutic (adjective): Relating to the healing of disease. — The experiment had both therapeutic and research objectives.
voluntary (adjective): Done or undertaken of a person's own free will. — Participation in the experiment was voluntary.
withdrawal (noun): The act of removing or taking something back. — Participants have the right of withdrawal from the experiment at any time.
Does the Nuremberg Code have legal standing?
The Nuremberg Code, established in 1947 following the Nuremberg Trials, is a set of ethical guidelines for conducting research involving human subjects. While the Code itself does not have the force of law, its principles have significantly influenced the development of subsequent ethical guidelines, regulations, and laws related to human research across the world.
Several key points to consider:
1. Ethical Foundation: The Nuremberg Code is primarily an ethical document, and its principles have been foundational in shaping the ethical standards for human research.
2. Influence on Subsequent Regulations: The principles of the Nuremberg Code have been incorporated into subsequent international agreements and national laws. For instance, the Declaration of Helsinki, developed by the World Medical Association in 1964 and revised multiple times since, builds upon the Nuremberg Code's principles and provides guidelines for medical researchers worldwide.
3. Legal Standing in Specific Jurisdictions: While the Nuremberg Code itself is not a legally binding document, many of its principles have been integrated into national laws and regulations in various countries. For example, in the United States, the Belmont Report and subsequent regulations for the protection of human subjects in research were influenced by the Nuremberg Code.
4. Use in Legal Cases: The Nuremberg Code has been referenced in legal cases, especially when issues of informed consent and ethical treatment of research subjects arise.
5. Moral Authority: Beyond its legal implications, the Nuremberg Code carries significant moral and historical weight. The context in which it was created—after the exposure of horrific human experiments conducted by Nazi doctors—gives it a profound authority in discussions about the ethics of human research.
In summary, while the Nuremberg Code itself does not have direct legal standing, its principles have deeply influenced the development of subsequent ethical guidelines and laws related to human research. It serves as a foundational document in the realm of research ethics.
Reference and further resources
- Nuremberg Code - Wikipedia
- The ten points of the Nuremberg Code - UK Parliament
- The Significance of the Nuremberg Code - New England Journal of Medicine
- Who violated the Nuremberg Code & our Universal Human Rights, on a mass scale, clearly amounting to crimes against humanity? - X