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What are the 12 rules of English grammar?

"The 12 rules of English grammar" may refer to a set of fundamental principles that guide the structure and use of the English language. While there's no universally accepted list of exactly 12 rules, here is a generalized list of 12 important basic grammar rules that are often highlighted in English language teaching.

1. All sentences have a noun and a verb. Nouns are people, objects, animals or places. Verbs are the actions that the nouns perform. (In imperative sentences, the noun is usually implied.)

2. All sentences must contain a subject and a predicate. The subject is the person or thing performing an action, and the predicate is what the subject is doing.

3. Use correct punctuation. All sentences must end with a full stopUK/periodUS [ . ], exclamation mark [ ! ] or question mark [ ? ].

4. Remember to use articles. All single, countable common nouns must be preceded by a definite article [ the ] or indefinite article [ a/an ].

5. Remember when to use capital letters. The first word in a sentence is capitalised. The pronoun "I" is capitalised. Proper nouns (names) are capitalised.

6. Use adjectives and adverbs correctly. Adjectives describe nouns, which they precede unless separated by a verb. Adverbs describe verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. Their position varies depending on type.

7. Use tenses correctly. Tenses make sure that a sentence is relative to the time you’re describing. Using the wrong tense upsets the timeframe of the sentence.

8. Use quantifiers to indicate the amount of something when not using numbers. Some quantifiers can be used with all types of nouns, some only with countable nouns, and some only with uncountable nouns.

9. Use the active voice. The active voice [ Cats eat fish ] is more common than the passive voice [Fish are eaten by cats] .

10. Use correct prepositions and use them properly. Prepositions indicate the relationships between the different elements of a sentence.

11. Use apostrophes to show possession. For single nouns, add an apostrophe and the letter s [ the dog's ball ]. For plural nouns, add an apostrophe after the letter s [ the dogs' ball ]. Possessive pronouns [ my, your, his/her/its, our, their ] do NOT take an apostrophe.

12. Use the correct conjunction to connect clauses. Conjunctions are words that link two clauses together. They can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence, depending on the context. Using the wrong conjunction can make a sentence incoherent.