Continuous Tenses and Meaning
There are some verbs that we do not normally use with continuous (or progressive) tenses. And there are other verbs that have one meaning with simple tenses and a different meaning with continuous tenses.
Non-continuous verbs are verbs that we do not normally use with continuous tenses. These "stative" verbs are about state, not action, and they cannot express the continuous or progressive aspect. Here are some of the most common non-continuous verbs:
- feeling: hate, like, love, prefer, want, wish
- senses: appear, feel, hear, see, seem, smell, sound, taste
- communication: agree, deny, disagree, mean, promise, satisfy, surprise
- thinking: believe, imagine, know, mean, realize, recognize, remember, understand
- other states: be, belong, concern, depend, involve, matter, need, owe, own, possess
Look at these example sentences, right and wrong:
|I want a coffee.||not
|I don't believe you are right.||not
|Does this pen belong to you?||not
|It seemed wrong.||not
|I don't hear anything.||not
Notice that we often use can + see/hear:
- I can see someone in the distance. not
I am seeing someone in the distance.
- I can't hear you very well. not
I am not hearing you very well.
Dual Meaning Verbs
Some verbs have two different meanings or senses. For one sense we cannot use a continuous tense. For the other sense we can use any tense.
For example, the verb think has two different meanings:
- to believe, to have an opinion
I think red is a sexy colour.
- to reflect, to use your brain to solve a problem
I am thinking about my homework.
In sense 1 there is no real action, no activity. This sense is called "stative". In sense 2 there is a kind of action, a kind of activity. This sense is called "dynamic".
When we use the stative sense, we cannot use a continuous tense. When we use the dynamic sense, we can use any tense, depending on the situation.
Look at the examples in the table below:
- no real action
- a kind of action
be and Continuous Tenses
The verb be can be an auxiliary verb (Marie is learning English) or a main verb (Marie is French). On this page we look at be as a main verb.
Usually we do not use main verb be with continuous tenses. For example, we say:
- London is the capital of the UK. not
London is being the capital of the UK.
- Is she beautiful? not
Is she being beautiful?
- Were you late? not
Were you being late?
Sometimes, however, we can use main verb be with a continuous tense. This is when the real sense of be is "act" or "behave". Also, the action is temporary. Compare the examples in the table below:
|be as main verb|
|simple tense||continuous tense|
|Mary is a careful person. (Mary is always careful - it's her nature.)||John is being careful. (John is acting carefully now, but maybe he is not always careful - we don't know.)|
|Is he always so stupid? (Is that his personality?)||They were being really stupid. (They were behaving really stupidly at that moment.)|
|Andrew is not usually selfish. (It is not Andrew's character to be selfish.)||Why is he being so selfish? (Why is he acting so selfishly at the moment?)|
Notice that we also make a difference between "to be sick" and "to be being sick":
- She is sick (= she is not well)
- She is being sick (= she is vomiting)
I am being
You are being
He, she, it is being
We are being
They are being