A contraction is an abbreviation where a bit of the full word has been cut out from inside, like this:
Sometimes more than one bit has been cut out from inside:
And sometimes bits are cut out from inside more than one word:
Here are some more examples:
|she'd've||she would have|
Some people put a full stop at the end (
govt., Revd.) but strictly speaking there is no need because the last letter of the contraction is the same as the last letter of the full form (govt, Revd).
In contractions of more than one word, the missing letters are replaced by an apostrophe (can't, she'd've).
Some contractions are written contractions designed to save space in text. We almost always pronounce these in full—the same as the full form.
write: dept - ft - govt - Revd - St - Blvd - mfg
say: department - foot or feet - government - Reverend - Saint - Boulevard - manufacturing
Other contractions are spoken contractions designed to save time and effort in speaking. The written version is simply mimicking the spoken version.
say and write: can't - let's - she'd've