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Adding -ing/-ed

Often we need to add -ing or -ed to a verb to make other forms of the verb, for example:
I was talking when John arrived.

Spelling Rule
Just add -ing or -ed to the end of the base verb:

  • work > working > worked
  • play > playing > played
  • open > opening > opened

Exceptions

If the base verb ends in:

do this:

and add:

For example:

consonant + vowel + consonant

and a stressed syllable

double the final consonant

-ing

-ed

stop > stopping > stopped
begin > beginning
tap > tapping > tapped

But, for example:
open > opening > opened
(because no stress on last syllable of open)

consonant + -e

remove the -e

-ing

-ed

phone > phoning > phoned
dance > dancing > danced
make > making
rake > raking > raked

-ie

change the -ie to -y

-ing

lie > lying
die > dying

nothing

-d

lie > lied
die > died

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